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The Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

Abell 2744

MACS J0416.1-2403

MACS J0717.5+3745

MACS J1149.5+2223

Abell S1063

Abell 370

This is the primary Archive website for accessing all the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields program data, which is a new initiative of six deep fields centered on strong lensing galaxy clusters (drawn from Abell et al. 1989) and the MACS survey (Ebeling et al. 2001), in parallel with six deep "blank fields" adjacent to these clusters. Please refer also to the main Frontier Fields project website where additional information is presented about the project, the team, and links to a blog. The program devotes 140 orbits to each cluster/blank field pair, imaging them to AB ≈ 28.7-29 mag with ACS (F435W, F606W, F814W) and and WFC3/IR (F105W, F125W, F140W, F160W). We are providing a variety of products for these clusters, including:

Also please visit the Spitzer Frontier Fields website for access to all the Spitzer data on the Frontier Fields.
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  • Please include the following acknowledgement in all publications that make use of these data;
    Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, retrieved from the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
    Latest news:

    Jun 29, 2015: HST V1.0 mosaics released for Epoch 2 of MACSJ1149.5+2223

    We are pleased to announce the Version 1.0 release of Epoch 2 of MACSJ1149.5+2223, after the completion of all the ACS and WFC3/IR imaging on the main cluster and parallel field from our Frontier Fields program (13504, PI: J. Lotz). These mosaics complete the full depth obtained on Epoch 2 of this cluster, adding a total of 18, 10 and 42 orbits respectively with ACS F435W, F606W and F814W on the main cluster, along with a total of 24, 12, 10 and 24 orbits respectively with WFC3/IR F105W, F125W, F140W and F160W on the parallel field, thus completing the total exposure time of 70 orbits on each field for this epoch, and 140 orbits total for this cluster. In addition, we release updated WFC3/IR mosaics on the main cluster that include new archival WFC3/IR from program 13790 (PI.: S. Rodney). All the mosaics in this v1.0 release have been fully recalibrated relative to the v0.5 mosaics that we have released during this epoch in May 2015. For ACS, the v1.0 mosaics incorporate new bias and dark current reference files, along with CTE correction and bias destriping, and also include a set of mosaics that have been processed with the new selfcal approach to better account for the low-level dark current structure. The WFC3/IR v1.0 mosaics have improved masking for persistence and bad pixels, and in addition include a set of mosaics that have been corrected for time-variable sky emission that can occur during the orbit and can otherwise impact the up-the-ramp count-rate fitting if not properly corrected. Further details are provided in the readme file, which can be obtained along with all the mosaics at the following location:

    Access to all HST data on these fields:

    • Via your browser: is the starting navigation point to all the data on these clusters.
    • FTP:
      ftp and login as anonymous.
      cd /pub/hlsp/frontier
      From there you can navigate through the site to find the field and data of interest.
    • WGET
      You can download whole directories of data using wget commands like:
      wget -nH --cut-dirs=5 -r -l0 -c -N -np -R 'index*' -erobots=off

    Cluster Name z Cluster Parallel Field HST
    RA Dec RA Dec
    Year 1:
    Abell 2744 0.308 00:14:21.2 -30:23:50.1 00:13:53.6 -30:22:54.3 Abell 2744 Display
    MACSJ0416.1-2403 0.396 04:16:08.9 -24:04:28.7 04:16:33.1 -24:06:48.7 MACSJ0416-2403 Display
    Year 2:
    MACSJ0717.5+3745 0.545 07:17:34.0 +37:44:49.0 07:17:17.0 +37:49:47.3 MACSJ0717+3745 Display
    MACSJ1149.5+2223 0.543 11:49:36.3 +22:23:58.1 11:49:40.5 +22:18:02.3 MACSJ1149+2223 Display
    Year 3:
    Abell S1063
    0.348 22:48:44.4 -44:31:48.5 22:49:17.7 -44:32:43.8 Abell S1063 Display
    Abell 370 0.375 02:39:52.9 -01:34:36.5 02:40:13.4 -01:37:32.8 Abell 370 Display

    Current HST observing schedule for these fields: (click the graphic for an interactive version):

    Zeropoints for all the HST mosaics (ACS and WFC3; ABmag; infinite aperture):
    F435W F606W F814W
    25.665 26.493 25.947
    F105W F125W F140W F160W
    26.2687 26.2303 26.4524 25.9463

    In addition, we are starting to prepare for v2.0 releases for all the Frontier Fields clusters that are complete, including Abell 2744 and MACS J0416.1-2403, to be followed by MACS J0717.5+3745, MACSJ1149.5+2223 and the subsequent clusters once these are complete. These v2.0 releases will contain a variety of processing and calibration improvements relative to the current v1.0 releases, including:

    • Improved removal of low-level background flatfield residuals
    • Improved astrometry, including new time-dependent distortion models
    • Reprocessing using the latest ACS self-calibration algorithms and updated WFC3/IR time-variable background removal for all data
    • Improved masking and removal of persistence in the WFC3/IR data
    • Consolidating all ACS and WFC3 imaging for each cluster (including more recent data, if publicly available) into full-depth mosaics.
    These v2.0 releases will be distributed in the coming months, as soon as the above processing improvements are complete, and will also be subsequently carried out on the remaining Frontier Fields clusters once their observations are complete.


    Abell, G. O., Corwin, H. G., Jr., & Olowin, R. P. 1989, ApJS, 701, 1

    Ebeling, H., Edge, A. C., Bohringer, H. et al. 1998, MNRAS, 301, 881

    Ebeling, H., Edge, A. C. & Henry, J. P. 2001, ApJ, 553, 668