The relation between array order and position in the displayed image, for example whether the first pixel is at the top or bottom, is also a matter of convention. GC recommend that FITS writers order pixels starting in the lower left hand corner of the image, with the first axis increasing to the right, as in the rectangular coordinate x-axis, and the second increasing upward (the y-axis). Readers may choose to use a different display, as might be done when picturing how a field mapped visually would look through a telescope. Use of this convention does not replace the description of the coordinate axes using CRVALn and the other keywords.
Although the original description of the CRPIXn, CRVALn, and CDELTn keywords was in the context of linear transformations, these keywords can be used to define non-linear transformations. The key point is that in such a case CDELTn must represent the rate of change in the physical coordinate per unit change in counting index at the reference point given by CRPIXn. For a non-linear scale, the ratio between change in the physical coordinate and in the counting index could be different at other pixels. Conventions for such transformations have not been established. Development or use of any such convention, including the definition of any new keywords, should be in cooperation with the others in the FITS community who need such conventions.